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Inclusion: Including all Kids!

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 11 months ago
 
INCLUDE ALL KIDS
What Does An Inclusive Classroom Look Like?
Inclusive classrooms look different all the time because the environment is created by whatever interactions the teacher and students have as a group or as individuals in the group, explains Chris Kliewer, thinking of his second grade classroom in New York.
It's a lot of students doing different things with people helping them, students moving from one environment to another. It's also a classroom where everybody is smiling, the students are actively engaged, and the teacher is delighted to be there. It sounds like pandemonium and looks messy.
Students spend a lot of time in learning centers where they make a lot of choices about what they're working on. It's a classroom where learning often happens in small groups with peer helping and supporting each others.
It's a classroom with a lot of time for social interaction that means something to curriculum expectations.
It's a classroom that is student-centered. Students have a high level of responsibility for creating their community. They help structure the rules and are expected to follow them and to meet contracted expectations for curriculum.
It's a classroom where students know others will be doing different things and the issue of fairness doesn't come into play because that's just the way it is.
It's a classroom that reaches beyond the classroom and into the community as a resource for learning new skills.
Nine Types of Adaptations
Size
Time
Level of Support
Adapt the number of items that the learner is expected to learn or complete.

For example:
Reduce the number of social studies terms a learner must learn at any one times.
Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing.

For example:
Individualize a timeline for completing a task; pace learning differently (increase or decrease) for some learners.
Increase the amount of personal assistance with a specific learner.

For example:
Assign peer buddies, teaching assistants, peer tutors, or cross-age tutors.
Input
Difficulty
Output
Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner.

For example:
Use different visual aids, plan more concrete examples, provide hands-on activities, place students in cooperative groups.
Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the learner may approach the work.

For example:
Allow the use of a calculator to figure math problem; simplify task directions; change rules to accommodate learner needs.
Adapt how the student can respond to instruction.

For example:
Instead of answering questions in writing, allow a verbal response, use a communication book for some students, allow students to show knowledge with hands-on materials
Participation
Alternate
Substitute Curriculum
Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task.

For example:
In geography, have a student hold the globe, while others point out locations.
Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials.

For example:
In social studies, expect a student to be able to locate just the states while others learn to locate capitals as well.
Provide different instruction and materials to meet a student's individual goals.

For example:
During a language test, one student is learning computer skills in the computer lab.
from Adapting Curriculum and Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms: A Teacher's Desk Reference, by Deschenes, C., Ebeling, D., and Sprague, J., 1994.
CLASSROOM ACCOMMODATIONS
Check those accommodations most needed for this student:
ALTERING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Seat near teacher
  • Assign student to low distraction work area
  • Seat near positive peer models
  • Use rows instead of tables in classroom
  • Don’t assign to open classroom setting
  • Use study carrel
  • Stand near student when giving instructions
  • Adjust lightening
  • Play music
  • Noise reduction earphones
  • FM systems
  • Tennis balls
ALTER PRESENTATION OF LESSONS
  • Adjust work load (reduce rote writing)
  • Use visual aids with oral presentations
  • Give student outline of material to be covered in the lesson prior to beginning lesson
  • Highlight instructions by emphasizing the major points
  • Permit student to tape record lesson
  • Provide student with written instructions concerning the lesson
  • Give clear behavioral objectives
  • Clearly explain grading criteria for all assignments
  • Break lesson into short segments
  • Ask student to repeat instructions
  • Use high - impact, game - like materials
  • Modify student's schedule
  • Call on student often
  • Give reminders for student to stay on task
  • Individual word analysis, word banks
  • Smart Board
  • Overhead projector
  • Wireless Reading Center
ALTER TESTING/EVALUATION PROCEDURES
  • Permit untimed testing
  • Arrange for oral testing
  • Have resource teacher administer tests
  • Use short, frequent quizzes
  • Permit breaks during tests
  • Permit student to type tests by use of computer in classroom
  • Adjust grading criteria
  • Reword Directions
  • Read test questions
  • Read questions excluding reading comprehension
ALTER DESIGN OF MATERIALS
  • Keep page format simple
  • Use buff-colored rather than white paper to reduce glare
  • Divide page into clearly marked sections
  • Remove distractions from paper
  • Large Print text
  • Books on tape
SupplementaryAids and Services
Alpha Smart, Study Guides, Quick Words, Spell Check, Franklin, Large Picture Visual Dictionary, Word Banks, Laptops, Headphones, Ear Plugs, Sensory Input, Velcro Theraband
PROVIDE ORGANIZATIONAL ASSISTANCE
  • Schedule a study hall in last period of day
  • Provide AM check-in to organize for day
  • Provide PM check-out to organize for homework
  • Provide lunch-time check-in to organize for afternoon
  • Give time to organize desk during class
  • Provide training in time management
  • Provide training in study skills
  • Provide training in how to take tests
  • Use a schedule or day timer to plan for long term assignments
  • Provide periodic review of student's notes
  • Provide training in how to take note
  • Allow student to take notes by use of PC or laptop computer in classroom
  • Seat Sacks
  • Crate by the desk to organize the books
  • Special Folder System
  • Laminated card to show students process of packing up
  • Agenda (sign am-pm)
EMPLOY EFFECTIVE MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES
  • Increase frequency of feedback
  • Provide a daily assignment sheet
  • Send daily progress note home
  • Send weekly progress note home
  • Periodically review the student's progress with student and parents
  • Encourage student to use a computer at all times to complete school work
  • Use a "response cost" for misbehavior, student subtracts a set amount of points from points given at beginning of each day which points result in a special privilege or activity for the student to participate in at the end of each school day
  • Use time out for misbehavior
  • Use in-class point system for positive behaviors, with points earned for positive goal behavior with daily reward experience at end of each school day
  • Call parents if student does ________ (fill in what you want to be called about) Tokens (10) cups on desk- treasure box
ADDITIONAL SUPPORTS
  • Peer tutoring
  • Cross-age tutoring
  • Study-buddy
  • Work with teacher aid or personal assistant
  • Meet with teacher after school
  • Reading Buddies
  • Counseling
  • Lunch Bunch
  • Homework Club
ADDITIONAL SKILL TRAINING
  • Provide conflict resolution training
  • Provide communications training
  • Teach student to monitor own behavior
  • Teach cognitive self-instructional (self-talk) techniques
  • Provide stress reduction and relaxation training and techniques
  • Keyboard and computer usage training to use computer instead of handwriting
  • Provide training in test taking skills
  • Professional Development
PARENT INVOLVEMENT
  • Call parents immediately if student_________ (fill in what you want to be called about)
  • Conduct parent conferences on at least a quarterly basis
  • Involve parents in selecting teacher(s) for the next school year
INPUT TO MEDICAL/THERAPEUTIC SUPPORT
  • Maintain a narrative log of significant events
  • Complete teacher ratings as follows
  • Look for specific medication side-effects
  • Train office staff to administer medication as prescribed
  • Remind student to go to the office to take medication
  • Check to see if medication is wearing off too soon
SOCIAL/PEER ORIENTED INTERVENTIONS
  • Monitor playground interactions with peers
  • Monitor lunch-room interactions with peers
  • Prompt student to engage in specific social skills such as: Assign to be with adults during lunch and/or recess times
ONGOING OR INTENSIVE INTERVENTIONS
  • Provide individual counseling for student with school or mental health counselor
  • Provide social skills training by outside mental health professional or agency
  • Teach self-instructional strategies by outside mental health professional or agency
  • Provide student's family with family therapy with a mental health counselor
  • Monitor behavioral plan at school and home for consistency in approach
  • Maintain ongoing consultation with parents by phone and in person
  • Maintain a procedure to provide crisis intervention if ever needed
  • Refer student to see if good candidate for medication
  • Refer student for medication review and update if noticing problems
TEACHER ATTITUDES/BELIEFS
  • Provide student's teacher(s) with in-service workshop on inclusion of students with Communications and Learning Disorders
  • Provide student's teacher(s) with reading materials on Communications and Learning Disorders
  • Provide student's teacher(s) with all relevant background information on student

 

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